(C) OLGA KNYAZ & YAROSLAW ROZPUTNYAK, AUTHOR'S RUSSIAN TAPESTRIES, MOSCOW, RUSSIA (C) [ STATE LICENSE #1306 MRC]

FREQUENTLY ASKED AND DISCUSSING QUESTIONS ABOUT TAPESTRIES

MAKING QUALITIES OF AUTHOR'S MANUAL WEAVING PRODUCS

The future  owner of piece of art must have clear realization of which quality features are responsible for true value and current price of this kind of art works  in general and certain piece of art. These  features must be compared for different art of work when the prices and value are compared.

1. COMPOSITION.
More complex composition requires more expenditures of labour and higher qualification of the executor, it  does the product becomes  more expensive.
There are many points of view, how the best skill is reflected at the construction of an art work composition.
The  apparently simplex picture, requires completely responsible study with all finished sites of the picture - those all are observable, whereas sometimes the complex composition enables to hide difficult places behind other fragments. It  happens the large number of fragments not always equally creatively are worked, sometimes more attention is given to a decorating central fragment, that is usually justified by necessity to allocate main part of art work idea.
The point of view of the author is closest to idea  that leaves the right to create the art work  in various styles - from most simple up to most complex without propensity to exaggerate correctness of any of styles.

2. COLORISTICS.
The necessary number of colours, cleanliness and excluding without correct necessity of dirty shades of colours, correct combination of colours and their transitions, both for neighbour colours, and as a whole for all product is a style, which differs from some other.
There is a point of view, that using only pastel colours is a parameter of high culture of the artist. However, it is rather  the difference of a style appropriately to the certain piece of art.

3. ART, GRAPHIC DETAILED ELABORATION.
The detailed elaboration enriches the work of art, makes  the image voluminous, lifts an art level of product, but requires more work and influences cost of a  tapestry.

4. TECHNICAL DETAILED ELABORATION.
The number of longitudinal (warp thread) and cross (weft thread) threads on unit of the area of a  tapestry defines  the number of interlacings (for example, on 1 square decimeter or appropriate inch square) and depends on engineering of technique and thickness of used strings.

5. MATERIALS   QUALITY .

COTTON , FLAX, JUTE STRINGS. Are used as warp threads, if them for this purpose replace synthetic those, the product loses durability and quality of structure.

WOOLEN THREADS. Are used for construction of the image.
The thick thread - of worse quality, has shorter fibers. The thin thread - of better quality, has longer and stronger fibers, and the product is more durable, than product of thick threads. However,  thick turned threads can be made of high-quality thin threads. The dirty colours of a wool testify to poor quality of an initial material,  of dyes and low level of colouring technology.

SILK THREADS. The higher quality of silk threads is determined on brightness of colours, presence of pure shine on a surface of threads, worse quality differs lustreless of a thread surface. The natural silk can not be replaced by synthetic silk on the quality and value for application in manufacturing product.

SYNTHETIC, SEMISYNTHETIC AND COMBINED THREADS. These threads sometimes have   advantages at achievement of shades of some colours, also reduce cost of product. If are used only for weft thread, at the insignificant contents do not influence appreciablly properties of product in comparison with product of a pure natural threads.
At a plenty of used synthetic threads the pice of art loses the durability and hygienic properties.

6. ABSENCE OF LACKS OF MANUFACTURE.

Even lateral edges characterize higher quality, than wavy edges, that  testifies to non-uniformity of tightening of warp strings with weft thread.

Width of cloth at a top
should be equal in comparison with width at the bottom, that testifies to absence of tightening of   warp strings with weft thread in a upwards direction.

Density of weft threads.Well condensed  weft threads must be completely close.

Absence of hollows and stick-outs  on a surface of product. Their presence testify to unguided or non-uniform condensation of threads in these places. It is an attribute of an inattention of the executor, his low qualification or low culture of work.

Absence of rough sites, pulled out threads both on obverse, and on reverse sides. At usual interlacings the reverse side should give the similar mirror images of a face side, except for sites, where technical accommodation of strings requires their passage above of these sites.

7.APPEARANCE OF THE REVERSE SIDE.
An equal surface of the reverse side, absence of trailing threads. The processed edges and accurate appearance of the reverse side testify to high culture of manufacturing.
If the cloth is thin the necessary technological  bound nodules at the reverse side must be accurate and uniform.
For wide-warp tapestries is possible smooth reverse side with absence any tips.
The covering by a paper behind product can have for an intention  a concealment of lacks of the reverse side.
The qualitative manual weaving product  is impossible without the qualitative reverse party.

8. FASTENING FOR SUSPENDER.
A design of fastening for suspender should allow beautiful accommodation of the top part of a product at suspender for a permanent exposition. Sometimes, the fastening of product on a wooden frame can testify to lacks in a tension of threads of a product, which corrects  by compulsory stretching on a frame. The suspender fastening should be strong, light and and convenient, should not be  hanging down of the top part of product in front. The fastening should let an opportunity of a choice by the owner of placement of product in a frame on expediency, it should not create inconveniences at moving and storage of product, should be easily accessible and convenient for the customs control. After accommodation of product in an interior the suspender fastening should not  hinder aesthetic perception of art work.

THE MAIN TAPESTRY DIFFERENCES AND OTHER KINDS OF TEXTILE ART PRODUCTS

TAPESTRY

This is the work of art, more often for placing on a room wall. Originality, manual work. The executor - artist or artisan of special qualification. The opportunities of the graphic image, number of colours, combination of various kinds of engineering of manufacture are not limited.

USUAL CARPET

The traditional object of a life, more often a  floor covering. Popular manual or machine manufacture on special samples. The executor - artisan after professional training or machine. The traditional carpets are named on the name of district of the origin, strictly correspond on technology and figure to the pattern.
The opportunities of the image are limited to typical figure and form on a pattern, number of colours, on the average, usually does not exceed 10. However, by the special order, the unique carpets of manual work are made. Among them, most highly are appreciated Iranian and Turkmen carpets. The highly artistic author's carpets, in the certain cases, can be referred to tapestries.

OTHER KINDS OF ART TEXTILE PRODUCTS

VARIOUS KINDS EMBROIDERIES

The various methods of embroidery, manual and machine performance, various degree of qualification of the artisan give a variety from popular consumer goods and household level up to  the highly artistic exclusive product.

EMBROIDER ON A FABRIC WITH SPECIAL HOOKS

There is a ready fabric used for embroidery picture. Are visible stitches, going in different directions, sometimes very thick, when instead of threads the turned bands of colour fabrics are used. The picture frequently is carried out by filling wyth the certain colours of the marked sites of a fabric.

EMBROIDER IN THE LOOP TECHNIQUE WITH THE HELP OF A SPECIAL NEEDLE

On the reverse side of a product the characteristic imposition of threadss on a cloth is visible, and on obverse side, after a draw aside of  pile is visible the cloth, through which the thread with a needle has passed. The loopy pile at this kind of products much less close, than pile of carpets and tapestries.

FELTS

For painted felts the image is depicted by a fabric paint or other kinds of paints on a felt material.
For colour felts the image is formed by  inserts of coloured  felt fragments of various colours.
The felts are works of art distinguished as not-woven textile.

BATIKS

The batik is the picture executed by a special method of a painting on a ready fabric. Very much frequently to these pictures apply a silk cloth, that gives to a picture the large grace.
There are some technologies of manufacturing of pictures by a method of a painting of a fabric. The modern methods differ from a traditional method of manufacturing batik due to application of proof paints and features of fixing of paints in a fabric.
The batik durability depends on a kind and grade of a used fabric, durability and quality of paints, and also quality of a paint  fixing  in a fabric.

KNITTED CLOTHS

Pictures and the decorative panels created by knitted interlacings have a characteristic kind of a surface of a knitted cloth, due to uniformity of lines of each kind of knitted loops. Can be created by manual knitting, and also with the help  knitting machines. The size of a knitted loop depends on a class knitting machine (knitting  needle size) and adjustment of  size of a loop by the machine.

The knitted cloth has all features inherent in this kind of a fabric:

- it is less dense, than cloth made by weaver's interlacings;
- is is easily stretched due to mobility of knitted loops;
- it requires fastening in frames because of propensity of jersey to  pull together and roll up.

Modern kntting machines allow to duplicate this kind of pictures due to application of punched cards and computer management  of knitting machine. However,  the change in the separate parts  of computer program, and also change of colours ОЙФПЛ from a picture to a picture enables  to receive the large number of variants, which differ from each other.
Now is inconvenient to create pictures by this method with the large number of colours, as every time is required change of a thread in  the thread-driver of the knitting machine, while the ordinary  knitting machine changes automatically only a few colours.
The large convenience in creation of this kind of a fabric is the speed of manufacturing by the knitting machine of a desirable picture at presence of the ready computer program, and also opportunity quickly to make modifications to the program before manufacturing of a fabric.

FACTORY PRODUCTS

FACTORY FABRIC SUCH AS "GOBELIN TAPESTRY" OF MACHINE MANUFACTURE

The fabric such as "Gobelin tapestry" is  weaved on special  machine tools, it is a fabric with figures (frequently, copies of ancient tapestries). On the reverse side, frequently is visible the accommodation of threads  agreeing to accommodation of threads on a face side. Can have good graphic detailed elaboration. Can not have many colours because of complexity of preparing process of the multiple copy manufacture. It   intends, usually, for upholstering of furniture. But, sometimes, it is used as a copy of a piece of art in frames for decoration of an interior.

PRINTED "GOBELIN TAPESTRY"

The image is put by printing  on a ready fabric or one-colour nap carpet. It has indistinct painting over of separate places. There are no many colours. The reverse side has no a copy of figure of a face side because of image is printing on the face side only.

MANUAL COMPLETION of MACHINE PRODUCTS

The carpet products, weaved by a machine way, further act on manual completion as a cutting of relief sites and lines. Are sometimes considered as a product of manual work, as the manual completion requires a lot of qualified work. Because of machine help these  economize large expences and allow to compose nice large-dimension multi-piece carpets with a price acceptable equally as   for the wall decoration both as for floor coverings.

Russian   РУССКАЯ ВЕРСИЯ

(C) OLGA KNYAZ & YAROSLAW ROZPUTNYAK, AUTHOR'S RUSSIAN TAPESTRIES, MOSCOW, RUSSIA (C) [ STATE LICENSE #1306 MRC]